*Edwin Hubble’s discovery of an expanding universe, when coupled with a quest to locate the ‘center of mass’ of the universe leads to shocking revelations.*

Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India — Mr. Subhajit Waugh, a scientist/physicist at Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology (RRCAT, India), has claimed, based on strong evidences emanating from his groundbreaking research, that physics and cosmology are both in crisis because we are wrong about the shape, size and workings of the universe. This is in logical continuation to his two earlier articles which appeared in PR Newswire (Global distribution) and Yahoo sites: 1) RRCAT Physicist Proposes New Theory Unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics 2) RRCAT Physicist Claims Correct Representation of Imaginary Numbers May Unify General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.

The most important discovery about the universe happened in the early 20th century at Mt. Wilson Observatory. Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding. But that is not the end of the story, because our presently accepted model of the universe cannot even satisfactorily answer an innocent question which a child might ask “if our universe is expanding, what it is expanding into?” Even more embarrassingly, scientists have not been able to locate a center of the universe. Scientists try to avoid the question by taking refuge to ‘an infinitely large universe’. But there is a big problem. In the vastness of our cosmos, each galaxy can be considered as a point mass. Even when the number of galaxies (n) tends to infinity, the powerful formula for ‘center of mass’ guarantees that there remains a single point as the center of mass. The mere invocation of infinity will not dissuade anyone from the conclusion that there is indeed a center. Only a balloon shaped universe can rescue cosmology from this situation. There is a true center of the balloon, but it does not lie anywhere on the surface. The only difference is: a balloon has a 2D surface, and exists in 3D space; while the (hyper) balloon universe has a 3D surface and exists in 4D (hyper) space. The balloon analogy for an expanding universe is perfect.

A recent, *Nature Astronomy* paper (Ref.1) had claimed with 99% confidence level that our universe is closed. Another paper (Ref.2) claimed betting odds of 2000 ∶ 1 against an open, flat and infinite universe. Both papers have mortally wounded the presently accepted, Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC). Eight serious shortcomings of the SMC are highlighted (Ref.3A). Each of these points is serious on its own. When taken together, one must agree that cosmology is in crisis, and it is time for a complete paradigm shift.

Physics currently rests on two pillars: General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). However GR and QM are mutually inconsistent, and there are bitter conflict between the two greatest theories of physics (Ref.3B). Physics is in crisis too, which is publicly accepted by physicists themselves (Ref.3C).

Mr. Subhajit Waugh, has boldly claimed that Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity appears to be incompatible because we are using the wrong model of the universe (4A). He has provided the exact shape and size of the universe (Ref.4B). Scientists and experts in the field can look at these (Ref.5, 6, 7). Mr. Waugh has claimed that an ‘expanding (hyper) balloon’ model of the universe leads to ‘unified physics and cosmology’, which comes pretty close to the ‘theory of everything’.

Edwin Hubble had observed that galaxies are moving away from Earth at speeds proportional to their distance. In other words, the farther they are, the faster they are moving away from Earth. Scientists realized that this particular form of Hubble’s law made sense if an expanding balloon is used as an analogy of the universe. Mr. Waugh asserts that they were right and their idea **should not** have been discarded. He also asserts that the wall of the balloon universe is made up of invisible scalar fields (somewhat similar to invisible electric and magnetic fields) and particles (which are mere excitations/resonances in those fields, just as the stunningly accurate *‘Quantum Field Theory*‘ insists). Since stars and planets and even humans are made up of particles, therefore every matter is eternally trapped within the 3D hypersurface of fields which makes up the wall of the (hyper) balloon.

Mr. Waugh claims scientists had not realized that the FLRW metric, which is the heart of SMC, actually paints this picture of the universe! Mr. Waugh used an analogy to a party balloon to illustrate his point. As the balloon expands, two things happen simultaneously. 1) A point/dot on the wall of the balloon moves away from the true center of the balloon along the radius of the balloon. This is what the temporal part of FLRW metric says. Movement along the radius of the universe appears as passage of time for trapped humans. 2) Nearby dots on the balloon appear to move farther away from each other due to the expansion of the wall of the balloon. This gives rise to Hubble’s law. [NOTE :- Taking the radial increment/expansion velocity of the universe as c and the age of the universe as 13.8 billion years, the value of the Hubble constant obtained using Waugh’s model (71.002 km/s/Mpc) agrees well with the accepted values (69.8 and 74 km/s/Mpc measured by two different methods).]

Mr. Waugh has asserted that the biggest mistake in Science is the concept of four-dimensional ‘SpaceTime continuum’ (Ref.8A). Einstein and Minkowski merged the three dimensions of space and one dimension of time into a single, 4D manifold called SpaceTime. This leads to a ‘block universe’ view in which there is no distinction between the past, the present and the future, and all three of them simultaneously coexist. This view is in stark contrast to our everyday experience, as well as with an astonishing number of observations in the whole of science. In fact, an entire book has been written to highlight this glaring mistake [The arrow of time: the quest to solve science’s greatest mystery (Peter Coveney, Roger Highfield)]. Einstein was wrong: time is real, not an illusion (8B). Those doubting the reality of time, should see the slices of Einstein’s brain (more than 240 slice blocks) preserved in formalin and kept in different locations worldwide. Einstien did not defeat time; it was the other way round. Time itself is not the fourth dimension, but emerges due to motion along fourth space dimension (8C). This is self-evident since time does not possess the unit of distance (meter or yard or mile) which would have given it the status of a true (space or spatial) dimension. Time = Distance/Velocity.

The above-mentioned mistake arose from improper/incomplete understanding of imaginary numbers (Ref.9A). An imaginary sign hides in the crucial Minkowski-Einstein SpaceTime equation. Although, immensely successful, it is NOT an equation of 4D SpaceTime continuum. It all boils down to one missing dimension, which has created a mess in physics and cosmology. Every SpaceTime metric (e.g. FLRW metric, Minkowski metric, and even the Schwarzchild metric which is the foundation for our present understanding of gravity) are mathematically accurate, but have a completely different physical interpretation from what is currently accepted. The temporal part of both FLRW metric and Minkowski metric are similar (and implies that the 3D hypersurface is moving with a velocity c in the 4th dimension). That has been completely ignored by scientists while creating a model for the universe, and emphasis is put only on the scale factor a(t), which plays the role of Hubble’s law. In fact, Relativity is all about being trapped on the surface wall of the expanding (hyper) balloon universe.

Waugh’s model of the universe implies the existence of two different frames of reference/viewpoints: the center of the universe viewpoint, and the viewpoint of humans from an awkward position in the universe. As already mentioned, Relativity is our viewpoint, while Quantum Mechanics is Nature’s viewpoint (or God’s viewpoint from the center of the universe). The universe is perceived differently from each viewpoint, but it is precisely this which allows the reconciliation between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This concept has profound implications for several concepts like field-particle duality, Lagrangian–Hamiltonian duality, quantum entanglement and even the conservation laws of Physics.

From the center of universe viewpoint, simultaneity is absolute (as demanded by Sagnac effect), and there is indeed absolute universal time (as demanded by quantum mechanics) because the time passed since the Big Bang is simply a function of the radius of the universe. From our viewpoint, locality is absolute, and velocity **c **is the upper limit, and remains constant for every observer. Those were Einstein’s firm belief, which were later shattered by Quantum Entanglement experiments (which led to the award of year 2022’s Nobel Prize in Physics). The constancy of the speed of light turns (our) space and time into inseparable twins, and makes (our) time a relative concept. This solves the *problem of time* (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem_of_time) which so stubbornly resisted the reconciliation of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity. Relativity changes into the realm of Quantum Mechanics with decreasing size scale due to exchanging roles of time and space. Three space dimensions and one time dimension (3+1) is sub-luminal (i.e. ‘inside the light cone’ realm of Relativity), while 1+3 is super-luminal (i.e. ‘outside the light cone’) and is the realm of Quantum Mechanics (Ref.9B and 9C). Every spooky Quantum phenomena arises naturally from super-luminal possibility.

Mr. Waugh has claimed that science is standing on shaky mathematical pillars (Ref.10), and correcting the faulty mathematical assumptions guarantees an imminent ‘paradigm shift’ in science. He has delved into the three key steps to overthrow the reigning theories in physics and cosmology, and has made testable and falsifiable predictions that can shake up science to the core (Ref.11). He firmly believes that all three key steps to overthrow ruling scientific theories are met, and a major scientific revolution inevitable. Soon, Euclid telescope’s data will show that the universe is positively curved, and hence is necessarily closed and finite (Ref.12). It will also prove that both Dark Energy and Dark Matter are tightly correlated to Normal Baryonic Matter (NBM), and hence unnecessary, and arise from wrong interpretation of General relativity. Euclid telescope has already completed its commissioning phase with flying colors.

Both Relativity and Quantum Mechanics arise naturally (like two sides of the same coin) in Mr. Waugh’s ‘expanding (hyper) balloon’ model of the universe. Hence it can supersede both theories, as well as replace the Standard Model of Cosmology.

**About Mr. Subhajit Waugh**

Mr. Subhajit Waugh obtained his Master’s degree in Physics from National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, in 2003, where he was the topper of his batch. In 1996, he was awarded the prestigious NCERT National Talent Scholarship. He requests everyone to watch and SHARE the United Nations Anthem (UN Anthem) video created by merging the National Anthem tunes of 194 nations/countries into a single musical tune: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YgUchABJ0EQ

**REFERENCES**

1) Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0906-9

2) Curvature tension: Evidence for a closed universe

https://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.103.L041301

3A) A candid assessment of standard cosmology

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1538-3873/aca51f/meta

3B) Relativity versus quantum mechanics: the battle for the universe

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2015/nov/04/relativity-quantum-mechanics-universe-physicists

3C) World’s largest physics conference in Las Vegas will be grand; but will it be worthwhile?

4A) RRCAT Physicist Proposes New Theory Unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

4B) We are wrong about the shape and size of our universe: RRCAT Physicist provides a new model of universe.

5) Shape and size of our universe: challenging the Standard Model of Cosmology

6) Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity are compatible, and have a common origin: the expanding (hyper) balloon universe

7) Is everything we know about the shape and size of our universe, and how it works, wrong?

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7343171

8A) The biggest mistake in Science: Space and Time do not fuse into SpaceTime continuum.

8B) Time arises from motion along fourth space dimension, and hence time is real, not an illusion

8C) Time itself is not the fourth dimension, but emerges due to motion along fourth space dimension

9A) RRCAT Physicist Claims Correct Representation of Imaginary Numbers May Unify General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

https://finance.yahoo.com/news/rrcat-physicist-claims-correct-representation-202518538.html

9B) Quantum principle of relativity

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/ab76f7/meta

9C) Relativity of superluminal observers in 1 + 3 spacetime

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6382/acad60/meta

10) Science is standing on shaky mathematical pillars, which guarantees a scientific revolution

11) Scientist Mr. Subhajit Waugh Makes Testable and Falsifiable Predictions that Could Shake up Science to the Core

12) Euclid telescope will revolutionize science, overthrow ruling scientific theories, and usher paradigm shift in science.

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